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Information for Healthcare Professionals

Revised: 17 June 2015

Data Sheet

GRANOCYTE*

lenograstim

GRANOCYTE 34: rHuG-CSF 263 µg (33.6 million International Units (IU))

GRANOCYTE 13: rHuG-CSF 105 µg (13.4 million IU)

Presentation

A white lyophilised powder in glass vial.

Uses

Action

Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Cytokine
GRANOCYTE (rHuG-CSF) belongs to the cytokine group of biologically active proteins which regulate cell differentiation and cell growth.

rHuG-CSF is a factor which stimulates the neutrophil precursor cells as demonstrated by the CFU-S and CFU-GM cell count increases in peripheral blood in the mouse. GRANOCYTE induces a marked increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts within 24 hours of administration.

Elevations of neutrophil count are dose-dependent over the 1-10 µg/kg/day range. At a dose of 5 µg/kg/day, repeated doses induce an enhancement of the neutrophil response. Neutrophils produced in response to GRANOCYTE show normal chemotactic and phagocytic functions.

Use of GRANOCYTE in patients who have undergone bone marrow transplantation, or who have been treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy leads to significant reductions in the duration of neutropenia and severity of infections.

* Trademark used under licence

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of GRANOCYTE show dose and time dependencies.

During repeated dosing (iv and sc routes), peak serum concentrations (at the end of iv infusion or after sc injection) are proportional to the injected dose. Repeated dosing with GRANOCYTE by the two injection routes results in no evidence of drug accumulation.

Following sc administration of GRANOCYTE 5 µg/kg/day to healthy volunteers, peak plasma concentration is reached at 6 ± 2.6 hours. The pharmacokinetic profile of GRANOCYTE is similar in healthy volunteers and cancer patients with elimination half-life (t½β) values of 2.3 - 3.3 hrs (volunteers); 2.8-7.5 hrs (cancer patients) following sc administration, and 0.8 - 2.1 hrs (volunteers); 1.1 - 4.0 hrs (cancer patients) following iv administration.

The absolute bioavailability of sc GRANOCYTE decreases in a dose dependent manner from approximately 62% to 24% in the 0.5 - 10 µg/kg dose range. At a dose of 5 µg/kg/day, the absolute bioavailability of GRANOCYTE is 30 ± 5% and the apparent distribution volume (Vd area) is approximately 52 ± 5 mL/kg body weight.

Plasma clearance of rHuG-CSF increased 3-fold (from 50 up to 150 mL/min) during repeated sc dosing. GRANOCYTE is poorly excreted in urine as intact compound (less than 1% of the dose) and is considered to be metabolised to peptides.

During multiple sc dosing, peak serum concentrations of GRANOCYTE are close to 100 pg/mL/kg body weight at the recommended dosage. There is a positive correlation between the dose and the serum concentration of GRANOCYTE and between the neutrophil response and the total amount of GRANOCYTE recovered in serum.

Indications

GRANOCYTE is indicated as a treatment to reduce the duration of neutropenia and the severity of infections in patients with non-myeloid malignancy who have undergone autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, or treatment with established cytotoxic chemotherapy and in addition to reduce the incidence of infection associated with established cytotoxic chemotherapy.

GRANOCYTE is also indicated to mobilise peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) with GRANOCYTE alone, or after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, in order to accelerate haematopoietic recovery by infusion of such cells, after myelosuppressive or myeloablative therapy. GRANOCYTE is also indicated to accelerate the engraftment of these cells after their reinfusion.

GRANOCYTE is also indicated for the treatment of severe chronic neutropenia including congenital agranulocytosis (Kostmann's syndrome).

Dosage And Administration

GRANOCYTE 34 263 µg (33.6 million IU) per vial is used in patients with body surface area up to 1.8 m².

GRANOCYTE 13 105 µg (13.4 million IU) per vial is used in patients with body surface area up to 0.7 m².

Adults

In PBPC Mobilisation Following Chemotherapy:
After myelosuppressive chemotherapy GRANOCYTE should be administered daily at the recommended dose of 150 µg (19.2 million IU) per m² per day, clinically equivalent to 5 µg (0.64 million IU) per kg per day, as a sc injection starting on the day after completion of chemotherapy until the expected nadir has passed and neutrophil count returns to a normal range compatible with treatment discontinuation.

Leukapheresis should be performed when the post nadir leucocyte count is rising or after assessment of CD34+ cells in the blood with a validated method. For patients who have not had extensive chemotherapy, one leukapheresis is often sufficient to obtain the acceptable minimum yield of PBPC ( ≥ 2.0 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg).

In PBPC Mobilisation With GRANOCYTE Alone:
GRANOCYTE should be administered daily at the recommended dose of 10 µg (1.28 million IU) per kg per day as a sc injection for 4 to 6 days. Leukapheresis should be performed between day 5 and 7. In patients who have not had extensive chemotherapy, one leukapheresis is often sufficient to obtain the acceptable minimum yield of PBPC ( ≥ 2.0 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg).

In Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) And Post-PBPC Reinfusion:
GRANOCYTE should be administered daily at the recommended dose of 150 µg/m²/day, clinically equivalent to 5 µg/kg/day as a sc injection, starting the day following reinfusion of PBPC (see Instructions for Use). In BMT, GRANOCYTE can also be administered as a 30 minute iv infusion diluted in 100 mL (GRANOCYTE 34) or 50 mL (GRANOCYTE 13) of isotonic saline solution.

Dosing should continue until the expected nadir has passed and the neutrophil count returns to a stable level compatible with treatment discontinuation, with, if necessary, a maximum of 28 consecutive days of treatment.

It is anticipated that by day 14 following BMT, 50% of patients will achieve neutrophil recovery.

When given post-reinfusion of PBPCs, the first dose of GRANOCYTE should be administered at the recommended dose of 150 µg/m²/day, clinically equivalent to 5 µg/kg/day, at least 24 hours after cytotoxic chemotherapy has ceased and at least 24 hours after reinfusion of PBPCs. The maximum duration of treatment with GRANOCYTE post-PBPC reinfusion should also be defined according to the period required for achievement of acceptable neutrophil counts (ie., >0.5 x 109/L for 3 consecutive days or > 1 x 109/L for 1 day).

In established cytotoxic chemotherapy:
The recommended dose of GRANOCYTE is 150 µg (19.2 million IU)/m²/day, clinically equivalent to 5 µg (0.64 million IU)/kg/day.

However, data from clinical studies have shown that GRANOCYTE can be administered in doses ranging from 2 to 5 µg (0.256 - 0.64 million IU)/kg/day depending on the severity of disease, the intensity of chemotherapy and the expected severity as well as duration of neutropenia.

GRANOCYTE at the recommended dose should be administered daily as a sc injection starting on the day following completion of chemotherapy (see Instructions for Use). Daily administration of GRANOCYTE should continue until the expected nadir has passed and the neutrophil count returns to within the normal range, which usually occurs within 8 to 14 days after starting treatment.

Even if a transient increase of neutrophils takes place within the first 2 days of treatment, with continuation of treatment the subsequent nadir usually occurs earlier and recovers more quickly.

In Severe Chronic Neutropenia:
GRANOCYTE at 150 µg/m²/day, clinically equivalent to 5 µg/kg/day, should be administered as a sc injection. The initial evaluation period of neutrophil recovery should be 7 to 14 days. Induction doses up to 20 µg (2.56 million IU) per kg may be required. Once obtained, neutrophil recovery may be sustained by continuation of treatment; cautious dose tapering and/or alternate day treatment may be feasible in some patients based on their ANC counts.

Elderly

Clinical trials with GRANOCYTE have included a small number of patients up to the age of 70 years but special studies have not been performed in the elderly and therefore specific dosage recommendations cannot be made for this group of patients.

Children

The safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE has been established in patients older than 2 years in BMT, after established cytotoxic chemotherapy and in patients with severe chronic neutropenia older than 4.5 months. No clinical studies in neonates have been conducted with lenograstim.

Instructions For Use

Contraindications

GRANOCYTE should not be administered to patients with known hypersensitivity to the product or its constituents.

GRANOCYTE should not be used to increase the dose intensity of cytotoxic chemotherapy beyond established dosage regimens and time courses since the drug could reduce myelotoxicity but not overall toxicity of cytotoxic drugs.

GRANOCYTE should not be administered concurrently with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

GRANOCYTE should not be administered to patients suffering from myeloid malignancy.

Warnings And Precautions

Patients With Severe Chronic Neutropenia

Acute myeloid leukemia or abnormal cytogenetics have been reported to occur in the natural history of chronic neutropenia without cytokine treatment. Abnormal cytogenetics have been associated with the development of myeloid leukemia. In patients with severe chronic neutropenia, it is unknown if therapy with rHuG-CSF accelerates and/or transforms to the development of cytogenetic changes or myeloid leukemia. Caution should, therefore, be exercised in using GRANOCYTE in patients with severe chronic neutropenia.

Care should be taken to confirm the diagnosis of severe chronic neutropenia before commencing therapy with GRANOCYTE as it may be difficult to distinguish the disease from myelodysplasia. The safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE in the treatment of neutropenia, due to myelodysplasia or myeloid leukemia, have not been established. It is important that serial full blood counts with differential and platelet counts, and an evaluation of bone marrow morphology and karyotype be done before commencement of therapy with GRANOCYTE. The use of GRANOCYTE before diagnostic confirmation of severe chronic neutropenia may mask neutropenia as a diagnostic sign of a disease process other than severe chronic neutropenia.

If a patient with severe chronic neutropenia develops abnormal cytogenetics, the risks and benefits of continuing GRANOCYTE should be carefully considered.

Malignant Cell Growth

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor can promote the growth of myeloid cells in vitro and similar effects may be seen on some non-myeloid cells in vitro.

The safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE administration in patients with myelodysplasia, acute myelogenous leukemia, or chronic myelogenous leukemia have not been established. Therefore because of the possibility of tumour growth, GRANOCYTE should not be used in any myeloid malignancy.

Clinical trials have not established whether GRANOCYTE influences the progression of myelodysplastic syndromes to acute myeloid leukemia. Caution should be exercised in using GRANOCYTE in any pre-malignant myeloid condition.

As some tumours with non specific characteristics can exceptionally express a G-CSF receptor, caution should be exerted in the event of unexpected tumour regrowth concomitantly observed with rHuG-CSF therapy.

Leucocytosis

A leucocyte count greater than 50 x 109/L has been observed in none of the 174 patients treated with 0.64 million IU/kg/day (5 µg/kg/day) following bone marrow transplantation. White blood cell counts of 70 x 109/L or greater have been observed in less than 5 % of patients who received cytotoxic chemotherapy and were treated by GRANOCYTE at 0.64 million IU/kg/day (5 µg/kg/day). No adverse events directly attributable to this degree of leucocytosis have been reported. In view of the potential risks associated with severe leucocytosis, a white blood cell count should, however, be performed twice weekly during GRANOCYTE therapy. If leucocyte counts exceed 10 x 109/L after the expected nadir, GRANOCYTE should be discontinued immediately.

However, during the period of administration of GRANOCYTE for PBPC mobilisation, GRANOCYTE should not be given if the leucocyte count rises to >50 x 109/L.

Pulmonary Adverse Effect

The onset of pulmonary signs, such as cough, fever and dyspnoea, in association with radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrates and deterioration in pulmonary function may be preliminary signs of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). GRANOCYTE should be discontinued and appropriate treatment given.

Risks Associated With Increased Doses Of Chemotherapy

The safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE have not been established in the context of intensified chemotherapy. GRANOCYTE should not be used to decrease beyond the established limits intervals between chemotherapy cycles and/or to increase single dosage chemotherapy. Indeed, non-myeloid toxicities have been limiting factors in a phase II chemotherapy intensification trial with GRANOCYTE.

Special Precautions In Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell Mobilisation And Therapy

- Choice of the mobilisation method:
Clinical trials carried out among the same patient population have shown that PBPC mobilisation, as assessed within the same laboratory, was higher when GRANOCYTE was used after myelosuppressive chemotherapy than when used alone. Nevertheless the choice between the two mobilisation methods should be considered in relation to the overall objectives of treatment for each individual patient.

- Prior exposure to cytotoxic agents:
Patients who have undergone extensive prior myelosuppressive therapy, may not show sufficient PBPC mobilisation to achieve the acceptable minimum yield (> 2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg) and therefore adequate haematological reconstitution.

A PBPC reinfusion program should be defined early in the treatment course of the patient and particular attention should be paid to the number of PBPCs mobilised before the administration of high-dose chemotherapy. If yields are low, the PBPC reinfusion program should be replaced by other forms of treatment.

- Assessment of progenitor cell yields:
Particular attention should be paid to the method of quantitation of progenitor cell yields as the results of flow cytometric analysis of CD34+ cell numbers vary among laboratories.

The recommendation of a minimum yield of ≥ 2.0 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg is based on published experience in order to achieve adequate haematological reconstitution. However, the minimum yield of CD34+ cells is not well defined. Yields higher than ≥ 2.0 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg are associated with more rapid recovery of haematopoiesis.

Thrombocytopenia

The safety of the use of GRANOCYTE with antineoplastic agents characterised by cumulative or predominant myelotoxicity with respect to the platelet lineage (nitrosourea, mitomycin) has not been established. Administration of GRANOCYTE might even enhance the toxicities of these agents, particularly with respect to platelets.

Special attention should be paid to platelet recovery in patients recovering from chemotherapy-induced myelotoxicity or from bone marrow transplantation.

Other Precautions

In patients with severe impairment of hepatic or renal function, the safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE have not been established.

- In patients with substantially reduced myeloid progenitor cells (eg, due to prior extensive radiotherapy/chemotherapy), neutrophil response is sometimes diminished and the safety of GRANOCYTE has not been established.

In patients receiving nitrosoureas without bone marrow rescue, the efficacy and safety of GRANOCYTE have not been established.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility:

No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with GRANOCYTE.

rHuG-CSF was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium, did not increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells, and was negative in a mouse micronucleus test.

Reproduction and fertility were unaffected by GRANOCYTE in mice at doses up to 1000 µg/kg/day iv, and in rats at doses up to 100 µg/kg/day iv.

Use In Pregnancy

Category B3. GRANOCYTE has been shown to have adverse effects in pregnant rabbits when given doses of 100 µg/kg/day iv. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.

In rabbits, increased abortion and embryolethality were observed in animals treated with GRANOCYTE at 100 µg/kg/day iv. Foetal weights were also reduced with this dose and to a lesser extent with 10 µg/kg/day. However, reductions in maternal weight gain and food consumption were also seen with both doses.

Similar adverse findings were not seen in a corresponding rat study, with the same doses, and there was no evidence for teratogenicity in either species.

Use In Lactation

Studies in animals have shown that GRANOCYTE is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether GRANOCYTE is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if GRANOCYTE is administered to a nursing woman.

Adverse Effects

In BMT:

- Special attention should be paid to platelet recovery since in double blind placebo-controlled trials the mean platelet count may have been slightly lower in patients treated with GRANOCYTE as compared to vehicle. However, this did not result in an increase in incidence of adverse experiences related to blood loss and the median number of days following BMT to last platelet infusion was similar in both GRANOCYTE and vehicle groups.

- In placebo-controlled trials, the most frequently reported side effects, (> 15% in at least one treatment group) occurred with equal frequency in patients treated with GRANOCYTE or vehicle. These were infection/inflammatory disorder of buccal cavity, fever, diarrhoea, rash, abdominal pain, vomiting, alopecia, sepsis and infection.

- In placebo-controlled trials after BMT, the incidence of Graft vs Host (GvH) disease was similar in patients treated with GRANOCYTE or vehicle.

In PBPC Mobilisation And Therapy:

- In clinical practice, PBPCs are replacing BMT for a number of reasons including the reduction in time to platelet recovery. In the clinical trials carried out in patients and healthy volunteers undergoing PBPC mobilisation, as well as in patients undergoing PBPC reinfusion, GRANOCYTE was well tolerated. Side effects were generally mild. The most frequently encountered adverse events were bone pain, headache and malaise.

In Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia

In placebo-controlled trials, GRANOCYTE appeared safe with equal incidence of reported adverse experiences in patients treated with GRANOCYTE or vehicle. The most commonly reported side-effects were alopecia, nausea, vomiting, fever, headache, similar to that observed in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

The safety of the use of GRANOCYTE with antineoplastic agents characterised by cumulative or predominant myelotoxicity with respect to the platelet lineage (nitrosourea, mitomycin) has not been established. Administration of GRANOCYTE might even enhance the toxicities of these agents, particularly with respect to platelets.

A higher incidence of bone pain (about 10% higher) usually controlled with simple analgesics such as paracetamol, and injection site reaction (about 5% higher) was reported when patients were treated with GRANOCYTE.

In Severe Chronic Neutropenia

Special attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of any of the following during long term treatment:

Cytogenetic abnormalities, transformation to myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been observed in patients treated with G-CSF preparations for chronic neutropenia.

Based on the analysis of long term data on patients treated with another brand of G-CSF, the greatest risk of developing these abnormalities (MDS, AML, cytogenetic abnormalities) seems to be in the subset of patients with congenital neutropenia. In patients with congenital neutropenia treated with G-CSF for up to 5 years, the rate of MDS and AML is reported to be fewer than 3 cases per 100 patient-years of exposure. In patients with non-congenital types of neutropenia (cyclic and idiopathic), the rate is fewer than 1 case per 100 patient-years of exposure. Leukemic transformation has also been observed in congenital neutropenia patients prior to the use of

G-CSF. In patients treated with G-CSF who had previously documented normal cytogenetic evaluations, cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 7, have been reported.

It is unknown whether the development of such abnormalities, MDS or AML is related to chronic daily administration of G-CSF or to the natural history of congenital neutropenia. It is therefore recommended that an annual bone marrow and cytogenetic evaluation should be considered in patients with congenital neutropenia.

Other Adverse Effects

Pulmonary infiltrates have been reported in some cases with an outcome of respiratory failure or ARDS, which may be fatal.

Interactions

The safety and efficacy of GRANOCYTE given on the same day as myelosuppressive cytotoxicity chemotherapy have not been established.In view of the sensitivity of rapidly dividing myeloid cells to myelosuppressive cytotoxic chemotherapy, the use of GRANOCYTE should not precede or overlap the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. It is recommended that GRANOCYTE should start on the day following completion of chemotherapy.

Possible interactions with other haematopoietic growth factors and cytokines have yet to be investigated in clinical trials.

Overdosage

In animals, acute toxicity studies (up to 1000 µg/kg/day in mice) and subacute toxicity studies (up to 100 µg/kg/day in monkeys) showed the effects of overdose were restricted to an exaggerated and reversible pharmacological effect. In humans, doses up to 40 µg/kg/day were not associated with toxic side effects except musculoskeletal pain.

The effects of GRANOCYTE overdosage have not been established. Discontinuation of GRANOCYTE therapy usually results in a 50% decrease in circulating neutrophils within 1 to 2 days, with a return to normal levels in 1 to 7 days. A white blood cell count of approximately

50 x 109/L was observed in one patient out of three receiving the highest GRANOCYTE dose of 40 µg/kg/day (5.12 million IU/ µg/day) on the 5th day of treatment.

Pharmaceutical Precautions

The shelf-life of GRANOCYTE 13 and 34 is 36 months when stored in a refrigerator at between 2°C and 8°C. Short exposure of the vials to elevated temperatures (up to 2 weeks at 30°C) does not affect the product stability.

- GRANOCYTE should not be reconstituted and diluted more than 24 hours before administration and solutions should be stored refrigerated at 2°C - 8°C. (Refrigerate. Do not freeze.)

GRANOCYTE vials are for single-dose use only.

- After reconstitution in 1.0 mL Water for Injection as recommended, the product is stable for 24 hours at 25°C. No decrease in activity was observed after dilution to a final concentration of not less 0.32 million IU/mL (2.5 µg/mL) for GRANOCYTE 34, or 0.26 million IU/mL (2 µg/mL) for GRANOCYTE 13, when the dilution was stored at 25°C or at 5°C for 24 hours.

Medicine Classification

Prescription Medicine

Package Quantities

GRANOCYTE 34: rHuG-CSF 236 µg (33.6 million IU) in packs of 5 vials.

GRANOCYTE 13: rHuG-CSF 105 µg (13.4 million IU) in packs of 5 vials.

Further Information

GRANOCYTE contains lenograstim, a recombinant glycoprotein (rHuG-CSF) equivalent to the human granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Lenograstim is expressed in a mammalian host cell system, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. rHuG-CSF has a molecular weight of about 20,000 Daltons and consists of 174 amino acids and approximately 4% carbohydrate. The amino acid sequence analysis of rHuG-CSF reveals that it is identical to native G-CSF.

Composition of GRANOCYTE lyophilisate (vial)

  GRANOCYTE 34 GRANOCYTE 13
rHuG-CSF 263 µg (33.6 million IU#) 105 µg (13.4 million IU#)
Human albumin 1 mg 1 mg
Mannitol 50 mg 50 mg
Polysorbate 20 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
Sodium phosphate dibasic 0.8 mg 0.6 mg
Sodium phosphate monobasic 3.6 mg 1.7 mg
Sodium chloride 3.2 mg 1.4 mg

#As measured by the GNFS-60 in vitro bioassay in comparison with the WHO International Standard for human G-CSF.

The lyophilisate should be reconstituted with 1.0 mL sterile Water for Injection.

GRANOCYTE 34 contains 263 µg (33.6 million IU) rHuG-CSF in 1 mL of the reconstituted product. GRANOCYTE 13 contains 105 µg (13.4 million IU) rHuG-CSF in 1 mL of reconstituted product. The reconstituted product of both strengths of GRANOCYTE is formulated as an aqueous phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 containing 5% mannitol, 0.1% human albumin and 0.01% polysorbate 20.

Clinical Trials

In Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell Mobilisation and Therapy
Use of GRANOCYTE, either alone or after chemotherapy mobilises haematopoietic progenitor cells into the peripheral blood. These peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) can be harvested and infused after cytotoxic chemotherapy, either in place of, or in addition to bone marrow transplantation.

Reinfused PBPCs, as obtained following mobilisation with GRANOCYTE, have been shown to accelerate the reconstitution of haematopoiesis and reduce the time to engraftment, leading to a marked decrease in the number of days to platelet independence when compared to bone marrow transplantation.

In an open label phase II study, sc GRANOCYTE 10 µg/kg/day was administered to 24 patients after standard or intensified induction for advanced breast cancer. The level of GM-CFC was higher after one course of chemotherapy plus GRANOCYTE than after the initial lenograstim alone. Mobilisation was not affected by the chemotherapy dose levels used. Progenitor cell mobilisation was maximal between 6 and 7.5 days after GRANOCYTE alone and between 11 and 13 days after chemotherapy plus GRANOCYTE coinciding with the peak white cell counts obtained. The median number of GM-CFC collected in a single apheresis was 2.17 x 105/kg (n=9) after cycle 1, and 1.7 x 105/kg (n=13) after any cycle. This study demonstrated clearly the ability of GRANOCYTE to mobilise progenitor cells into the circulation, and showed that the combination of chemotherapy and GRANOCYTE mobilised more colony-forming cells than lenograstim alone.

In another open label Phase II study, the ability of reinfused GRANOCYTE-primed PBPC together with GRANOCYTE post moderate intensity chemotherapy to facilitate platelet recovery in 21 advanced breast cancer patients, was investigated. Each patient received a 6-day course of sc GRANOCYTE 150 µg/m²/day prior to commencing an intensified FAC regimen. One group of patients had GRANOCYTE only, a second group had GRANOCYTE plus PBPC collected after cycle 1, a third group had GRANOCYTE plus PBPC contained in 450 mL blood and collected after steady state and next 5 cycles and the fourth group had PBPC collected in the steady state after GRANOCYTE alone (no GRANOCYTE given after FAC chemotherapy). The peak levels of CD34+ cells and GM-CFC found in the blood after GRANOCYTE alone were 32 x 106/L and 7.2 x 105/L respectively and occurred around day 6. This study confirms that GRANOCYTE alone at a dose of 150 µg/m²/day can mobilise progenitor cells; and chemotherapy plus GRANOCYTE yields higher progenitor cell levels although the levels decline after repeated administration of chemotherapy.

A Phase III multicentre study had been undertaken in 90 patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with ablative chemotherapy (BEAM). The first part of the study was non-randomised where patients were mobilised with 1.5 g/m² cyclophosphamide followed by sc GRANOCYTE 1 vial (263 µg) per day from the day after cyclophosphamide (day 2) until day 10. PBPCs were harvested by leukapheresis on days 10 and 11. In the second part of the study, patients were randomised to receive sc GRANOCYTE 1 vial (263 µg) per day, or no growth factor, from day 1 post high dose therapy (BEAM) and PBPC reinfusion (day 0), until neutrophil recovery to > 0.5 x 109/L for 3 days or > 1 x 109/L for 1 day. Of the 62 evaluable patients, 34 received GRANOCYTE and 28 no growth factor. There was a significant difference observed between the treatment groups (p=0.0001) in the time to neutrophil recovery. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 9 days in the GRANOCYTE arm versus 13 days in the no growth factor arm. Similarly, there was a significant difference between the treatment groups for days to hospitalisation (p=0.0002). Patients receiving GRANOCYTE stayed in hospital for a median of 13 days compared with patients receiving no GRANOCYTE who stayed in hospital a median of 15.5 days. The first part of the study confirmed that the combination of cyclophosphamide and GRANOCYTE 1 vial (263 µg) per day is an effective mobilisation regimen in most patients with lymphoma. The second part of the study indicates that the use of GRANOCYTE 1 vial (263 µg) per day post high dose chemotherapy, and reinfusion of PBPCs, shortens the period of neutropenia and decreases the number of days of hospitalisation.

In Established Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
A cross-over comparison of the efficacy of subcutaneously administered GRANOCYTE at 2 and 5 µg/kg/day during two consecutive cycles of a standard dose of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with non-leukemic malignancy has shown that both doses of GRANOCYTE provided similar levels of prophylaxis against the incidence, severity and duration of neutropenia and infectious complications.

In Severe Chronic Neutropenia
A phase II, open label, multicentre study was conducted in Europe with lenograstim on 19 patients suffering from congenital agranulocytosis, a form of severe chronic neutropenia, of sufficient severity as assessed by a recent history of infection, either recurrent under prophylactic antibiotic therapy or having led to hospitalisation. The patients were of both sexes ranging in age from 4.5 months to 23 years with a median of 5 years. The treatment period ranged from 4 to 35 months (median duration of 27 months).

Induction doses of lenograstim 5 µg/kg/day by sc injection induced a significant increase in absolute neutrophil counts (ANC ³ 1,000/ µL) in 15 patients, the remaining 4 required doses of 10 - 20 µg/kg/day. Stable neutrophil counts above 0.5 x 109/L were achieved in 18 of the 19 patients and mostly obtained at a maintenance dose of 5 µg/kg/day. Intermittent treatment was possible in a minority of patients, usually those who achieved stable neutrophil counts at low dose levels, often below 5 µg/kg/day.

The frequency and severity of infections were markedly reduced in all but one patient. Growth and weight were seen to increase in line with observed prior growth rates. The number of curative antibiotic therapies and hospitalisations was reduced. Objective and subjective measurements of the quality of life also showed some improvement.

Despite prolonged lenograstim exposure, there were very few adverse events related to lenograstim administration. The main ones noted in this study were leucocytosis, mild hyperuricemia, erythema at the site of injection, lumbar pain, splenomegaly and grade I thrombocytopenia. In only one patient was treatment with lenograstim discontinued; this patient, on three occasions, developed a rash which was thought to be vasculitis. However, the biopsy slide was subsequently re-examined and the diagnosis changed to acute suppurative pustulosis which subsequently recovered.

Name And Address

Manufactured by:

Chugai Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd
16-3 Kiyohara-Kogyodanchi
Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-31
JAPAN

For:

AMRAD Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd
17-27 Cotham Road
Kew Vic 3101
AUSTRALIA

Distributed by:

CSL (NZ)
Level 4
Building 10
PO Box 62590
Central Park
AUCKLAND

TELEPHONE: (9) 579 8105

DATE OF PREPARATION

NOVEMBER 1998

GRN/11/98/3D

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