Revised: 13 June 2013
Website: August 2009
Prescriber Update 2009;30(3):20
Prescribers are reminded that a number of medicines have been associated with the development of methaemoglobinaemia.
Methaemoglobin is formed when the iron in haemoglobin is oxidised to its ferric state. This reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin. Methaemoglobin is normally present in the blood at concentrations below 2%; symptoms are only likely to develop when methaemoglobin levels exceed 20% to 30%.
Signs and symptoms of methaemoglobinaemia include headache, fatigue, cyanosis, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, tachycardia, altered levels of consciousness, myocardial infarction and diffuse hypoxic brain injury. Severe cases have resulted in death.
In confirming the diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia, pulse oximetry is not considered a reliable measurement.1 Diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia requires co-oximetry testing on arterial blood samples.
Risk factors for developing methaemoglobinaemia include:2